Pleurisy is inflammation of the linings around the lungs (the pleura). There are two layers of pleura; one covering the lung and the other covering the inner wall of the chest. These two layers are lubricated by pleural fluid. Pleurisy is characterized by pain in the chest with breathing. Pleurisy can also cause pain, cough, chest tenderness, and shortness of breath. Pleurisy is frequently associated with the accumulation of extra fluid in the space between the two layers of pleura. This fluid is referred to as a pleural effusion. Pleurisy is also referred to as pleuritis.